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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers with a five-year survival rate of less than 5%. Late presentation and a high level of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs are among the major reasons for this dismal prognosis. The presence of the highest degree of desmoplasia among all solid tumours and the fact that chronic inflammatory pancreatic disease is associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer indicate that the tumour microenvironment is of particular importance for carcinogenesis in the pancreas.

Incidence & treatment

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat. It is the commonest cancer affecting the exocrine pancreas.

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Failure of therapeutic approaches

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Importance of the tumour microenvironment